Strabismus is the deviation of the alignment of one eye over the other, regardless of the degree (major or minor) presented. In some cases, this visual defect can occur in both eyes.
In other words, strabismus is arises by the lack of coordination of eye muscles, which does not allow the person to focus the eyesight on the same object or focal point at a time. From a functional point of view, strabismus causes an incorrect binocular vision that affects the perception of depth of field.
Strabismus can develop during childhood or be congenital (present at birth). Any deviation from a perfect ocular alignment is called “strabismus”. Improper alignment can be in any direction: inward, outward, upward or downward.
- Conjugated movement:
Eye movement in the same direction at the same time.
The formation of an image from the two images that are viewed simultaneously by both eyes.
Latent deviation keeping the eyes straight by binocular vision.
The tendency of an eye to turn inwardly.
The tendency of an eye to turn outwardly.
The tendency of one eye to drift upwardly.
The tendency of one eye to drift downwardly.
Manifested deviation of the eyes that cannot be controlled with binocular vision.
Convergent manifested deviation (“squint”).
Deviation in divergent states (“inverted squint”).
Manifested deviation of an eye upwardly
Manifested deviation of an eye downwardly
Inward rotation of an eye on the visual axis (that is, the right eye in clockwise direction, left eye in the opposite direction).
Outward rotation of an eye relative to the visual axis (that is, right eye in clockwise direction, left eye in the opposite direction).
Strabismus occurs in about 4% of children. Treatment should be initiated as soon as the diagnosis is made in order to ensure the best possible visual acuity and binocular visual function. Not all strabismus can be corrected by itself.